Southern laws mandating racial segregation included

Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas that public school segregation was unconstitutional and paved the way for desegregation.

Congress passed a third Civil Rights Act in response to many white business owners and merchants who refused to make their facilities and establishments equally available to black people.

Ferguson upheld an 1890 Louisiana statute mandating racially segregated but equal railroad cars.

Du Bois, Henry Moscowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard and William English Walling led the call to renew the struggle for civil and political liberty.

The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified stating that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude....shall exist" in the United States.

He was the driving force behind watershed events such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the March on Washington, which helped bring about such landmark legislation as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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